Children and Digestive Problems
Constipation in Children
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children and Adolescents
Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants
Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children
Constipation in Children
Constipation means that bowel movements are hard and dry, difficult or painful to pass, and less frequent than usual. It is a common problem for children, but it is usually temporary and no cause for parents to be concerned.
When a child does not eat enough fiber, drink enough liquids, or get enough exercise, constipation is more likely to occur. It also happens when children ignore the urge to have a bowel movement, which they often do out of embarrassment to use a public bathroom, fear or lack of confidence in the absence of a parent, or unwillingness to take a break from play. Sometimes constipation is caused by medicines or a disease.
Symptoms of constipation include
no bowel movement for several days or daily bowel movements that are hard and dry
cramping abdominal pain
liquid or solid, clay-like stool in the child's underwear--a sign that stool is backed up in the rectum
Constipation can make a bowel movement painful, so the child may try to prevent having one. Clenching buttocks, rocking up and down on toes, and turning red in the face are signs of trying to hold in a bowel movement.
Treatment depends on the child's age and the severity of the problem. Often eating more fiber (fruits, vegetables, whole-grain cereal), drinking more liquids, and getting more exercise will solve the problem. Sometimes a child may need an enema to remove the stool or a laxative to soften it or prevent a future episode. However, laxatives can be dangerous to children and should be given only with a doctor's approval.
Although constipation is usually harmless, it can be a sign or cause of a more serious problem. A child should see a doctor if
episodes of constipation last longer than 3 weeks
the child is unable to participate in normal activities
small, painful tears appear in the skin around the anus
a small amount of the intestinal lining is pushed out of the anus (hemorrhoids)
normal pushing is not enough to expel stool
liquid or soft stool leaks out of the anus
The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse collects resource information on digestive diseases for the Combined Health Information Database (CHID). CHID is a database produced by health-related agencies of the Federal Government. This database provides titles, abstracts, and availability information for health information and health education resources.
To provide you with the most up-to-date resources, information specialists at the clearinghouse created an automatic search of CHID. To obtain this information, you may view the results of the automatic search on Constipation in Children.
If you wish to perform your own search of the database, you may access the CHID Online website and search CHID yourself.
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse
2 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3570
The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the clearinghouse provides information about digestive diseases to people with digestive disorders and to their families, health care professionals, and the public. NDDIC answers inquiries, develops and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about digestive diseases.
Publications produced by the clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts.
This e-text is not copyrighted. The clearinghouse encourages users of this e-pub to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired.
NIH Publication No. 04-4633